×
 Hotline: 0903 411 666   |     Email: chienbinh@ielts-fighter.com

Luyện tập 1

    Questions

    Choose one correct answer for each question 1-3.

    A scientist based in Scotland  claims  to have found the first evidence of a common language shared by different animal  species.   The calls,  which  are understood by monkeys  and birds, were discovered by Klaus Zuberbuhler, a psychologist at St Andrews University. According to Zuberbuhler, animals and birds can communicate  complex ideas not just to their  peers but across species.

     

    The findings  have been heralded as  a significant  breakthrough   in the quest to discover the origins of human  language  and proof that  the ability to construct  a complex   form of communication  is  not  unique   to man.  Zuberbuhler   made the discovery  after  spending months observing the calls  of Diana  monkeys in  the Tai  Forest in  Ivory Coast,  in West Africa. He and his colleagues recorded thousands   of monkey calls and spent hundreds of hours  listening to the animals'  noises. They noticed  that the monkeys adapted their calls to change the meaning to warn one another about different  threats  or opportunities.    For example,  the sight of a leopard prompted a 'krack'   alarm  call. However, when  they merely repeated calls  made by other monkeys they added  an 'oo.

     

    The researchers   found that the calls could be understood  by other species  of monkey as well as by some birds.  'What  our discovery  showed is that the alarm  calls were far  more complex than we had thought,'  said  Zuberbuhler. 'They were conveying information  that was contextual, self-aware  and intelligent.   We then tried  playing these calls back to other monkeys and they responded in  ways that showed they knew the meaning.  What's more,  the same calls would be recognised  by other species,  like Campbell's monkeys. So they are communicating  across species.  And  since then we have found that hornbill  birds  can understand these calls and  they too can understand   all the different   meanings.'

     

    Among   scientists,   the idea that animals and birds might be sentient has been around a long time. Chimpanzees  are perhaps the most obvious species for comparisons with humans,  but their abilities can still surprise,  as when researchers at Georgia State University's language research centre in  Atlanta taught some to 'speak'.  They taught the animals to use voice synthesisers  and a keyboard  to hold  conversations with humans.  One chimp developed a 3,000-word vocabulary and tests suggested she had the language and cognitive  skills of a four-year-old  child.

     

    Perhaps the most surprising  signs of intelligence  have been found in birds - whose tiny heads and small  brains  were long assumed to be a complete barrier  to sentience.  All that  is  changing fast, however, with many species showing  powerful  memories  and reasoning power. A few years ago  Irene   Pepperberg of the Massachusetts  Institute  of Technology taught a parrot to recognise and count   up to six  objects and describe their shapes.

     

    Last year that was topped by Alex Kacelnik,  a professor of behavioural ecology at Oxford,  who discovered that crows are capable of using multiple tools in complex sequences, the first  time such behaviour  had been observed in non-humans.  In an experiment  seven crows successfully reeled in  a piece of food placed out of reach using three different lengths of stick. Crucially,  they were able to complete the task without any special training, suggesting the birds  were capable of a level of abstract reasoning and creativity normally associated only with humans.

     

    Last week it  emerged that researchers  from Padua University in Italy had found that birds were  able to read numbers from left to right, as humans do, and count to four even when  the line of numbers  was moved from vertical to horizontal.  They also showed that birds  performed better  in  tests after a good night's sleep.

     

    All this  is  powerful  evidence against the idea that people are unique. A scientist based in Scotland  claims  to have found the first evidence of a common language shared by different animal  species.   The calls,  which  are understood by monkeys  and birds, were discovered by Klaus Zuberbuhler, a psychologist at St Andrews University. According to Zuberbuhler, animals and birds can communicate  complex ideas not just to their  peers but across species.

     

    The findings  have been heralded as  a significant  breakthrough   in the quest to discover the origins of human  language  and proof that  the ability to construct  a complex   form of communication  is  not  unique   to man.  Zuberbuhler   made the discovery  after  spending months observing the calls  of Diana  monkeys in  the Tai  Forest in  Ivory Coast,  in West Africa. He and his colleagues recorded thousands   of monkey calls and spent hundreds of hours  listening to the animals'  noises. They noticed  that the monkeys adapted their calls to change the meaning to warn one another about different  threats  or opportunities.    For example,  the sight of a leopard prompted a 'krack'   alarm  call. However, when  they merely repeated calls  made by other monkeys they added  an 'oo.

     

    The researchers   found that the calls could be understood  by other species  of monkey as well as by some birds.  'What  our discovery  showed is that the alarm  calls were far  more complex than we had thought,'  said  Zuberbuhler. 'They were conveying information  that was contextual, self-aware  and intelligent.   We then tried  playing these calls back to other monkeys and they responded in  ways that showed they knew the meaning.  What's more,  the same calls would be recognised  by other species,  like Campbell's monkeys. So they are communicating  across species.  And  since then we have found that hornbill  birds  can understand these calls and  they too can understand   all the different   meanings.'

     

    Among   scientists,   the idea that animals and birds might be sentient has been around a long time. Chimpanzees  are perhaps the most obvious species for comparisons with humans,  but their abilities can still surprise,  as when researchers at Georgia State University's language research centre in  Atlanta taught some to 'speak'.  They taught the animals to use voice synthesisers  and a keyboard  to hold  conversations with humans.  One chimp developed a 3,000-word vocabulary and tests suggested she had the language and cognitive  skills of a four-year-old  child.

     

    Perhaps the most surprising  signs of intelligence  have been found in birds - whose tiny heads and small  brains  were long assumed to be a complete barrier  to sentience.  All that  is  changing fast, however, with many species showing  powerful  memories  and reasoning power. A few years ago  Irene   Pepperberg of the Massachusetts  Institute  of Technology taught a parrot to recognise and count   up to six  objects and describe their shapes.

     

    Last year that was topped by Alex Kacelnik,  a professor of behavioural ecology at Oxford,  who discovered that crows are capable of using multiple tools in complex sequences, the first  time such behaviour  had been observed in non-humans.  In an experiment  seven crows successfully reeled in  a piece of food placed out of reach using three different lengths of stick. Crucially,  they were able to complete the task without any special training, suggesting the birds  were capable of a level of abstract reasoning and creativity normally associated only with humans.

     

    Last week it  emerged that researchers  from Padua University in Italy had found that birds were  able to read numbers from left to right, as humans do, and count to four even when  the line of numbers  was moved from vertical to horizontal.  They also showed that birds  performed better  in  tests after a good night's sleep.

     

    All this  is  powerful  evidence against the idea that people are unique.

    1.     Complex information    

    2.     Chimpanzees

    3.     Birds  have shown evidence of being able to 

Bài tập cùng unit

BỔ TRỢ KIẾN THỨC

Top
LỊCH KHAI GIẢNG
ĐK THI THỬ IELTS MIỄN PHÍ