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    Use the text below to complete the following diagram.

    Dolphins have been declared the world's second most intelligent  creatures after humans,  with scientists suggesting they are so bright that they should be treated as 'non-human   persons'.

    Studies  into dolphin behaviour have highlighted  how similar  their communications   are to those of humans and that they are brighter  than chimpanzees. These have been  backed  up by anatomical  research showing that dolphin brains have many key features associated with high intelligence.  The researchers  argue that their work shows it is morally  unacceptable  to keep such intelligent  animals  in amusement  parks or to kill them for food or by accident when fishing. Some 300,000  whales, dolphins and porpoises die in  this way each year.

    'Many dolphin brains are larger than our own and second in mass only to the human brain when corrected for body size,' said Lori Marino, a zoologist at Emory University   in  Atlanta,  Georgia, who has used magnetic    resonance  imaging    scans to map the brains   of dolphin species   and compare  them  with  those  of primates.    'The   neuroanatomy   suggests psychological continuity   between   humans   and dolphins  and has profound  implications      for the ethics   of human-dolphin    interactions,'    she added.

    Dolphins have  long   been recognised   as  among the most intelligent    of animals.    Recently, a series   of behavioural     studies   has  suggested    that  dolphins,  especially    species   such as the bottlenose,    whose  brains    weigh   about   5lb,  could even be  brighter     than   chimps,    which   some studies  have   found    can   reach the   intelligence      levels   of three-year-old      children.    The  studies    show how  dolphins    have  distinct    personalities,     a strong    sense of self and   can  think   about  the  future.

    It has also  become    clear  that   they  are   'cultural'     animals,     meaning    that   new  types   of behaviour can quickly   be picked    up by one dolphin    from  another.   In  one study,   Diana    Reiss,    professor    of psychology     at  Hunter    College,  City   University     of  New York, showed  that  bottlenose  dolphins could  recognise    themselves   in  a mirror   and use it  to inspect   various   parts  of their  bodies,    an ability   that  had been thought  limited   to humans  and great  apes.   In  another,   she found that captive animals   also  had the ability  to learn  a  rudimentary   symbol-based   language.

    Other research  has shown  dolphins  can solve difficult   problems,   while   those  living    in  the wild  co-operate   in ways that  imply  complex  social  structures   and a  high level of  emotional sophistication.   In one recent  case, a dolphin  rescued  from  the wild  was taught  to tail-walk    while recuperating   for three  weeks  in a  dolphinarium     in  Australia.   After  she was released,  scientists were astonished  to see the trick  spreading  among  wild  dolphins  who had learnt  it from  the former   captive.   There are many similar   examples,  such as the way dolphins  living  off Western Australia   learnt  to hold sponges  over their  snouts  to protect  themselves  when  searching  for spiny fish on the ocean floor.  Such observations,   along with  others  showing,    for example, how dolphins  could  co-operate   with  military   precision  to round  up shoals  of fish to eat, have prompted  questions  about  the brain  structures   that  must  underlie  them.

    Size is only one factor.  Researchers  have found that  brain   size varies   hugely from  around  7oz for smaller  cetacean  species  such as the Ganges River dolphin  to more than  19lb for sperm whales,  whose  brains  are the largest  on the planet.  Human  brains,  by contrast,  range from 2lb-4lb,   while  a chimp's   brain  is about  12oz. When it comes to intelligence,   however,  brain size  is less important   than  its size relative  to the body. What Marino  and her colleagues  found was  that the cerebral  cortex  and neocortex  of bottlenose  dolphins  were so large that  'the anatomical   ratios   that  assess cognitive  capacity   place it second  only to the human  brain'.    They also found that the brain   cortex  of dolphins  such as the bottlenose   had the same convoluted folds  that are  strongly  linked  with  human  intelligence.  Such folds increase  the volume  of the cortex  and the  ability  of brain   cells  to interconnect    with  each other. 'Despite   evolving   along a different   neuroanatomical    trajectory   to humans, cetacean brains  have several  features  that  are correlated   with  complex  intelligence,'    Marino  said.

    'Marino  and Reiss will   present  their   findings  at a  conference  in San Diego, California,   next month,  concluding  that the new evidence about  dolphin  intelligence   makes  it  morally  repugnant to mistreat  them.  Thomas  White,   professor  of ethics  at Loyola Marymount   University,   Los Angeles,  who has written   a series  of academic   studies  suggesting   dolphins  should  have rights, will  speak at the same conference.   ‘The scientific   research  ...   suggests  that  dolphins  are “non-human persons” who qualify for moral standing as individuals’, he said.

    1 ( Small cetacean species )

    2 ( 12 oz )

    3 ( human )

    4 ( 1-4lb )

    5 ( bottlenose dolphin )

    6 ( sperm whale )

    7 ( 19lb )

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