Khi muốn thuật lại lời nói của ai đó, bạn sẽ cần dùng đến câu tường thuật. Trong tiếng Anh họ phân ra câu trực tiếp và gián tiếp với cách chuyển ngữ pháp khác nhau như dưới đây.
I. ĐỊNH NGHĨA CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT
Câu tường thuật là thuật lại lời nói trực tiếp. Đây là dạng câu phổ biến trong tiếng Anh mà các bạn cần chú ý kỹ.
Câu tường thuật có hai kiểu:
- Tường thuật trực tiếp (direct speech): thuật lại đầy đủ và chính xác điều ai đó diễn đạt (trích dẫn).
Khi viết, lời của người nói sẽ đặt trong dấu ngoặc kép.
Ví dụ: He said “She is my girlfriend” thì khi thuật lại, câu trong ngoặc kép chính là lời nói trực tiếp của anh ấy.
- Tường thuật gián tiếp (indirect speech): Là thuật lại lời nói của một người theo cách gián tiếp, truyền nhau mà không có dùng dấu ngoặc kép, có thể không trích dẫn y nguyên.
Ví dụ: She said: “ I want to eat iceream”.
-> She said she wanted to eat icecream.
Tường thuật gián tiếp sẽ chuyển ngôi.
II. CÁCH CHUYỂN CÂU TRỰC TIẾP SANG GIÁN TIẾP
Để chuyển câu trực tiếp sang gián tiếp thì bạn chỉ cần ghép nội dung tường thuật vào phía sau câu nói, lùi thì của động từ xuống 1 cấp quá khứ, đại từ sẽ chuyển đổi linh hoạt.
1. Trường hợp thì hiện tại
Nếu động từ chia ở thì hiện tại thì chúng ta giữ nguyên thì của động từ chính, đại từ chỉ định và trạng từ chỉ thời gian, nơi chốn trong câu trực tiếp khi chuyển sang câu gián tiếp. Chỉ thay đổi cách chia theo ngôi được chuyển đổi.
She says: “I like ice cream.”
She says (that) she likes ice cream.
My mother says: “ I amgoing to Hanoi next week”
My mother says she is going to Ha Noi next week.
They say: “ We are going to the cinema.”
-> They say they are going to the cinema.
Bạn có thể sử dụng that hoặc không để thêm vào câu nói thôi.
2. Trường hợp động từ tường thuật ở thì quá khứ
Nếu cau tuong thuat ở thì quá khứ thì lùi động từ chính của câu khi chuyển sang gián tiếp một bậc theo quy tắc như sau - trong đó có một số thì và từ không đổi:
Câu trực tiếp
|Câu gián tiếp|
|Hiện tại đơn||
I like ice cream
|He said he liked ice cream|
|Hiện tại tiếp diễn||
I am living in London
|He said he was living in London.|
|Quá khứ đơn||I bought a car||
He said he had bought a car
He said he bought a car.
|Quá khứ tiếp diễn||
I was walking along the street
|He said he had been walking along the street.|
|Hiện tại hoàn thành||
I haven't seen Julie
|He said he hadn't seen Julie.|
|Quá khứ hoàn thành||
I had taken English lessons before
|He said he had taken English lessons before.|
Chuyển đổi thì với trợ động từ, động từ khuyết thiếu
Câu trực tiếp
|Câu gián tiếp|
|Will - Would||
I'll see you later
|She said (that) she would see me later|
|Would – Không thay đổi||
I would help, but..”
|She said (that) she would help but...|
|Can - Could||
I can speak perfect English
|She said (that) she could speak perfect English.|
|Could - Không thay đổi||I could swim when I was four||
She said (that) she could swim when she was four.
|Shall - Colud||
I shall come later
|She said (that) she would come later.|
|Should - không thay đổi||
I might be late
|She said (that) she might be late|
|Might - Không thay đổi||I might be late||
He say he might be late
Must - Không đổi
Must - Had to
|I must study at the weekend||
She said (that) she must study at the weekend
She said she had to study at the weekend
Biến đổi đại từ và các từ hạn định theo bảng sau:
Câu trực tiếp
|Câu gián tiếp|
|I/ We/ They|
|me/ us/ them|
|Đại từ sở hữu
|my/ our/ their|
|Đại từ sở hữu||
|mine/ ours/ theirs|
|Đại từ chỉ định||
Sự thay đổi thời gian trong câu gián tiếp
Sự thay đổi thời gian sẽ thực hiện theo thời gian mà khi bạn chuyển lời lại, thuật lại.
It's Monday. Julie says "I'm leaving today".
-> If I tell someone on Monday, I say "Julie said she was leaving today".
-> If I tell someone on Tuesday, I say "Julie said she was leaving yesterday".
-> If I tell someone on Wednesday, I say "Julie said she was leaving on Monday".
-> If I tell someone a month later, I say "Julie said she was leaving that day".
Bảng chuyển đổi thời gian trong câu trực tiếp và gián tiếp
|now||then / at that time|
yesterday / that day / Tuesday
/ the 27th of June
the day before yesterday / the day before /
Wednesday / the 5th of December
|last night||the night before, Thursday night|
|last week||the week before / the previous week|
today / the next day /
the following day / Friday
3. Tổng kết các dạng câu tường thuật
Câu tường thuật ở dạng câu kể
S + say(s)/said + (that) + S + V
Công thức câu tường thuật:
- says/say to + O -> tells/tell + O
- said to + O ->told+O
Eg: He said to me ”I haven’t finished my work” -> He told me he hadn’t finished his work.
Một số trường hợp ngoại lệ, nếu câu nói thể hiện sự thật chung chung thì bạn vẫn có thể không cần thay đổi thì của động từ gián tiếp:
Ví dụ: She said: “ The sky is blue.”
-> She said (that) the sky is/was blue.
Trường hợp không cần giảm thì khác:
- Trong câu có năm xác định.
- Các câu có cấu trúc sau: if only, as if, as though, wish, would rather, it’s high time, IF loại 2, 3 .
Trường hợp câu hỏi với câu nghi vấn
Nếu là câu nghi vấn, bạn cũng chuyển câu hỏi thành câu khẳng định thay vị trí chủ ngữ và động từ. Nhưng động từ chính thì chuyển lùi về thì quá khứ.
S + asked(+O)/wanted to know/wondered + Wh-words + S + V.
* says/say to + O -> asks/ask + O
* said to + O -> asked + O.
Ex: ”What are you talking about?”said the teacher. -> The teacher asked us what we were talking about.
Where do you live?
-> She asked me where I lived.
Where is Julie?
-> She asked me where Julie was.
Where is the Post Office, please?
-> She asked me where the Post Office was.
What are you doing?
-> She asked me what I was doing.
Who was that fantastic man?
-> She asked me who that fantastic man had been.
Trường hợp với câu hỏi yes/no. Lúc này trong câu tường thuật tiếng Anh, bạn thay thế If cho câu hỏi:
Công thức: S+asked/wanted to know/wondered+if/wether+S+V
Do you love me?
-> He asked me if I loved him.
Have you ever been to Mexico?
-> She asked me if I had ever been to Mexico.
Are you living here?
-> She asked me if I was living here.
Một số trường hợp khác:
Yêu cầu làm điều gì đó, lịch sự - chuyển sang câu gián tiếp
Ví dụ: Close the window, please
Or: Could you close the window please?
Or: Would you mind closing the window please?
Trường hợp này, bạn dùng cấu trúc: ask me + to + infinitive':
She asked me to close the window.
Ví dụ khác:
Please help me.
-> She asked me to help her.
Please don't smoke.
-> She asked me not to smoke.
Could you bring my book tonight?
-> She asked me to bring her book that night.
Could you pass the milk, please?
-> She asked me to pass the milk.
Would you mind coming early tomorrow?
-> She asked me to come early the next day.
Nếu là câu phủ định, bạn thêm Not:
Please don't be late.
-> She asked us not to be late.
Đối với trường hợp câu tường thuật mệnh lệnh
Bạn chuyển sang câu gián tiếp với tell – told
Khẳng định: S + told + O + to-infinitive.
Ex: ”Please wait for me here, Mary.” Tom said -> Tom told Mary to wait for him there.
*Phủ định: : S + told + O + not to-infinitive.
Ex: ”Don’t talk in class”,the teacher said to us. –>The teacher told us not to talk in class.
Go to bed!
-> He told the child to go to bed.
-> He told her not to worry.
Be on time!
-> He told me to be on time.
-> He told us not to smoke.
MỘT SỐ DẠNG CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT ĐẶC BIỆT
SHALL/ WOULD diễn tả đề nghị, lời mời:
Tom asked: 'Shall I bring you some food?'
-> Tom offered to bring me some food.
Tom asked: 'Shall we meet at the cinema?'
-> Tom suggested meeting at the cinema.
WILL/ WOULD/ CAN/ COULD diễn tả sự yêu cầu:
Tom asked: 'Will you help me, please?'
-> Tom asked me to help him.
Jane asked Tom: 'Can you open the door for me, Tom?'
-> Jane asked Tom to open the door for her.
Các bạn cùng xem lại kiến thức, bài tập của các dạng câu quan trọng:
- Câu điều kiện - tất tần tật kiến thức và bài tập chi tiết
- Câu bị động - kiến thức và tổng ôn bài tập chi tiết
- Mệnh đề quan hệ - Kiến thức và bài tập có đáp án
III. BÀI TẬP CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT
Exercise 1: Chuyển các câu sau về dạng câu trần thuật
1. “If the weather is fine, I will go on a picnic with my friends,” she said.
2. “What would you do if you had three days off ?” I asked him.
3. “I would have come to see you if I had known your address, Jim” she said.
4. “I’m sure she will help you if you ask her.” , he told me.
5. “If Today were Sunday, we wouldn’t go to school.” They said to me.
6. She said to me, “If I were you, I wouldn’t tell her about this.”
7. “There would not be enough seats if a lot of guests came.”
8. “You will be surprised if you meet him.” , Peter said to Linda.
9.The boy said : “I won’t be strong if I don’t swim everyday.”
10. “What would you do if you saw a snake ?” Nam asked Nga.
11. “We’ll have lunch outside in the garden if it’s not cold.” ,Mr John said.
12. “Tom would win more races if he trained hard.” , The man said.
13. “If you feel like a chat, phone me tonight.” David said to me.
14. “If you isn’t eating so much junk food, you would be a lot fitter.” Mother said.
15. “I will be surprised if Mary doesn’t pass the exam.” , our teacher said.
16. “If I knew her hobbies, I could let you know.” He said to me.
17. “If I won the lottery, I would buy a new car.” , the man said.
18. “If you had listened to my advice, you wouldn’t have made such a big mistakes.”
Julia said to LiLi.
Exercise 2: Chọn đáp án đúng nhất.
1. Jack asked me _____.
A. where do you come from? B. where I came from
B. where I came from D. where did I come from?
2. She asked me _____ I liked pop music.
A.when B.what C.if D.x
3. The doctor ____ him to take more exercise.
A.told B.tell C. have told D. are telling
4. I wanted to know_____ return home.
A. when would she B. when will she C. when she will D. when she would
5. Claire told me that her father____ a race horse.
A. owns B. owned C. owning D. A and B
6. What did that man say ______?
A. at you B. for you C. to you D. you
7. I rang my friend in Australia yesterday, and she said it _______ raining there.
A. is B. were C. has been D. was
8. The builders have ______ that everything will be ready on time.
A. promised B. promise C. promises D. promising
9. The doctor _______ him to take more exercise.
A. told B. tell C. have told D. are telling
10. The last time I saw Linda, she looked very relaxed. She explained she’d been on holiday the ______ week.
A. ago B. following C. next D. previous
11. Yesterday, Laura ______ him to put some shelves up.
A. asked B. is asking C. ask D. was asked
12. Tom has ______ this story wasn’t completely true.
A. admitting that B. was admitted that C. admitted that D. admit that
13. When I rang Tessa some time last week, she said she was busy ______ that day.
A. that B. the C. then D. this
14. I wonder _____ the tickets are on sale yet.
A. what B. when C. where D. whether
15. Mathew _____ Emma that her train was about to leave.
A. has reminded B. has reminded that C. reminded D. reminded that
16. Hello, Jim. I didn’t expect to see you today. Sophie said you _____ ill.
A. are B. were C. was D. should be
17. Ann ______ and left.
A. said goodbye to me B. says goodbye to me C. tell me goodbye D. told me goodbye
18. I told you ______ switch off the computer, didn’t I ?
A. don’t B. not C. not to D. to not
19. Bill was slow, so I ________ hurry up.
A. tell him B. told him for C. told to D. told him to
20. Sarah was driving to fast, so I ______ to slow down.
A. asked her B. asked C. ask D.have asked her
21. Someone ______ me there’s been an accident on the motorway.
A. asked B. said C. spoke D. told
22. Sue was very pessimistic about the situation. I advised her _____.
A. no worry B. not worry C. no to worry D. not to worry
23. I couldn’t move the piano alone, so I asked Tom_______.
A. giving a hand B. gave a hand C. to give a hand D. give a hand
24. Tom said that New York _______ more lively than London.
A. is B. be C. was D. were
25. When he was at Oliver’s plat yesterday, Martin asked if he ______ use the phone.
A. can B. could C. may D. must
26. George couldn’t help me. He ______ me to ask Kate.
A. tell B. said C. told D. say
27. Judy ______ going for a walk, but no one else wanted to.
A.admitted B. offered C. promised D. suggested
28. I said that I had met her ______ .
A. yesterday B. the previous day C. the day D. the before day.
29. The man asked the boys ______ .
A. why did they fight B. why they were fighting
C. why they fight D.why were they fighting
30. “______the door”, he said.
A. please open B. open pleased C. please to open D. please, opening
31. I wanted to know ______ return home.
A. when would she B. when will she C. when she will D. when she would
32. The woman wonders _______ doing well at school.
A. whether her children are B. if her children were
B. whether her children were D. her children are if
33. Peter said he was leaving for Paris ______.
A. next week B. the week previous C. following week D. the following week
34. “I don’t usually drink milk when ______ ” Mrs. Pike said.
A. she was hungry B. I was hungry C. I am hungry D. I will be
35. They said that their house had been broken into ______.
A. the two days before B. two days ago C. two days before D. since two days
1. She said if the weather was fine, she would go on a picnic with her friends.
2. I asked him what he would do if he had (had) three days off.
3. She told Jim that she would have come if she had known his address.
4. He told me that he was sure she would help if I asked her.
5. They told me if that day were Sunday, we wouldn't go to school
6. She told me that if she were me, she wouldn't tell her about that
7 . If a lot of guest came, there would not be enough seats.
8. Peter told Linda that she would be surprised if she met him.
9. The boy said that he would not be strong if he did not swim everyday.
10. Nam asked Nga what she would do if she had seen a snake?
11. Mr John said that they would have lunch outside in the garden if it was not cold.
12. The man said that Tom would have won more races if he had trained.
13. David told me to phone him that night if I felt like a chat.
14. My mother told me that I would be a lot fitter if I was not eating so much junk food.
15. Our teacher said that she would be surprised of Mary did not pass the exam.
16. He told me that he could have let me known if he had known her hobbies.
17. The man said that he would have bought a new car if he had won the lottery.
18. Julia told LilLi that she would not have made such a big mistake if she had listened to Julia’s advice.