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Viết lại câu trong tiếng Anh (Paraphrase) và bài tập có đáp án

Tags:     

Phương pháp Paraphrase (Viết lại câu) được hiểu một cách đơn giản là phương pháp viết lại câu mà không làm thay đổi nghĩa gốc qua việc vận dụng các từ đồng nghĩa hoặc các cấu trúc mang ý nghĩa tương tự.

Ví dụ:

- Drinking water is very important to our health.

-> Drinking water plays a vital role in maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

Xem bài giảng chi tiết:

I. TẦM QUAN TRỌNG CỦA VIẾT LẠI CÂU - PARAPHRASE

Đây là một trong những kĩ năng đặc biệt quan trọng, bởi nhờ đó:

- Giúp bạn tránh được các lỗi trùng lặp từ hay đạo văn khi tham khảo các nguồn tài liệu khác nhau, đồng thời giúp bài viết tránh bị rời rạc, lủng củng, hay bị ngắt quãng giữa chừng bởi những câu trích dẫn (đặc biệt là trong trường hợp lạm dụng trích dẫn)

- Giúp bạn tóm lược nội dung bài nói/ viết một đơn giản và dễ hiểu hơn (trong trường hợp bạn muốn giải thích hay tóm tắt các luận điểm)

- Tận dụng việc paraphrase lại câu hỏi để có thêm thời gian suy nghĩ câu trả lời

Cách viết lại câu trong tiếng Anh 1

II. 5 CÁCH VIẾT LẠI CÂU TRONG TIẾNG ANH 

1. Cách 1: Dùng từ đồng nghĩa

Từ đồng nghĩa (Synonym) những từ cùng một loại từ mang ý nghĩa giống nhau. Tuy nhiên, các từ có thể khác nhau về nghĩa hiển thị do đó các từ có thể thay thế cho nhau hay không phải dựa theo từng ngữ cảnh.

Ví dụ: advantages = benefits, pros, the plus points

Sử dụng từ đồng nghĩa trong việc viết lại câu là một trong những cách cơ bản và hiệu quả nhất. Tuy nhiên, trong quá trình tìm từ vựng phù hợp để thay thế keyword trong câu chủ đề, các bạn cần đặc biệt lưu ý về nghĩa gốc và ngữ cảnh sử dụng từ đó, tránh trường hợp chọn từ gần nghĩa thay vì từ đồng nghĩa, dẫn đến trường hợp tạo ra câu mới mang nghĩa không sát với câu gốc. Để tránh tình trạng này, các bạn nên truy cập vào đường link https://www.thesaurus.com để tra cứu những trường từ vựng đồng nghĩa phù hợp theo từng ngữ cảnh.

Cách viết lại câu trong tiếng Anh 2

Tips

Trong quá trình tìm từ vựng phù hợp để thay thế keyword trong câu chủ đề, các bạn cần đặc biệt lưu ý về nghĩa gốc và ngữ cảnh sử dụng từ đó, tránh trường hợp chọn từ gần nghĩa thay vì từ đồng nghĩa, dẫn đến trường hợp tạo ra câu mới mang nghĩa không sát với câu gốc.

Xem thêm: Từ đồng nghĩa Synonym và 3 cách paraphrase trong IELTS Writing

Bài luyện tập:

Ex 1: Tìm từ, cụm từ đồng nghĩa với các từ vựng trong đoạn văn sau:

a. To truly tackle traffic congestion, we need more realistic solutions than restricting people to stay indoors. One such solution can be improving public transportation. The convenience of public conveyance would discourage many to use their private cars, which is the primary reason for bad traffic in many cities. Furthermore, the government can encourage people to use an eco-friendly mode of transport, like the bicycle, by dedicating a separate lane for them. Many European and Asian cities, for example, already have separate cycle lanes and this has been truly effective in promoting environment-friendly vehicles and reducing traffic congestion.

Cách viết lại câu trong tiếng Anh 3


b. With the change of the family structure and social norm, people these days want their children to excel in education and other creative fields rather than taking care of the family. Joint family predominated the society and parents had more children in the past. With the rise of the nuclear family and one-to-two-child-family policy, parents totally focus on a child's education, unlike the past. In my opinion, blaming children for not taking responsibilities is an impartial judgement as modern children have far more pressure from schools and parents. They are not expected to earn money or do house hold works in a well-to-do family. With the increasing literacy rates, less discrimination in a family, women empowerment and better lifestyle, the trend has more positive outcomes, without a doubt.

Cách viết lại câu trong tiếng Anh 4

Ex 2: Sử dụng các từ đồng nghĩa được gợi ý và viết lại các câu sau:

a. Universities should accept equal numbers of men and women in every subject. (the same number of)

b. Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in seperate schools. (single-sex schools)

c. Even though globalization affects the world’s economies in a positive way, the negative side should not be forgotten. (In spite of / good effects / drawbacks)

d. The problem of deforestion is impossible to avoid, especially when people focus too much on making profits. (undeniable / concentrate on)

e. One of the main reasons for students to have higher education is to get high salary when graduated. (well-paid jobs)

f. The increasing level of pollution relates directly to the development of economy. (associated to)

g. Many people believe that government should provide free education to all citizens. (be equipped with / non-paid education)

h. It is undeniable to say that the gender inequality is still happening in the developing countries. (unavoidable / third world countries)

i. The urgent thing is to solve the existing problem about malnutrition in Africa. (crucial / deal with)

j. The main factors for dealing with the issue include both government and citizens. (tackle)


2. Cách 2: Dùng câu chủ động và bị động

- Trong trường hợp câu chủ đề là câu chủ động, bạn có thể sử dụng cấu trúc chuyển từ câu chủ động sang câu bị động và ngược lại. Đây cũng là một kĩ thuật hay sử dụng trong việc viết lại câu.

- Việc đầu tiên, bạn cần phân biệt được cấu trúc hai dạng câu này:

 Câu chủ động: S + V/tobe
->  Câu bị động: S + tobe + P2

 Cách chuyển đổi từ câu chủ động sang câu bị động

Cách viết lại câu trong tiếng Anh 5

Cách viết lại câu trong tiếng Anh 6

 

Bài luyện tập:

Ex 3: Gạch chân các cấu trúc bị động trong đoạn văn sau:

Đoạn 1:

The power of advertising is undeniable. The growth of the advertising industry has resulted in many people buying products of the same manufacture, which can be seen in the case of consumer goods. Today, the advertising campaigns of multinational companies such as Unilever have been remarked that their products almost dominate the market. Smaller enterprises tend not to be able to compete with these giant market leaders due to their disadvantages of capital poured into advertising programs. Thus, customers are often swayed to buy products of famous brands rather than those made by less well-known companies.

 

Đoạn 2:

The most worrying aspect of nuclear technology is its use for military purposes by many high and mighty countries. Enough atomic bombs have already been made which are capable of completely destroying the planet. An increasing number of countries now have nuclear weapons or have the technology required to make such bombs, and there is an ongoing debate about how to control the threat of nuclear weapons. After the fall of Russia, many Russian scientists have found their nuclear technology expertise is in high demand in countries that have an ambition with nuclear technology. Many believe that, at that time, technology has been secretly made available to many aspiring countries such as Iraq, North Korea, India, Pakistan and others

 

Đoạn 3:

School violence becomes very protrusive in many countries, most of which are caused by the attitudes of students. Some governments and the authorities show great concerns about the problems. From my point of view, these problems are aroused by three factors, the development of society, the influence of family and media and the weakness of school education.

Thanks to the rapid development, the young students are offered more opportunities to contact the outside world. Due to the lack of social experience, some youngsters are not capable of distinguishing right from wrong. Curiosity drives them into imitating what they see on TV or from the people around them.


Xác định các câu văn sau là câu bị động (P) hay câu chủ động (A)

STT

Câu văn

Dạng

1

School should strengthen students’ moral education, give them correct directions and cultivate their ability to tell right from wrong.

 

2

Teacher in different countries should be paid according to how much their students learn.

 

3

Women should be allowed to join the army, the navy and the air force just like men.

 

4

Without experiments on living animals, genetic technology would not have developed so quickly.

 

5

Any child can be taught to ultilize their potentials in some specific aspects.

 

6

Women are already serving in the various  other physically demanding job sectors  such as  white collar and blue collar worker

 

7

Smoking should be prohibited in public places due to its adverse impacts on health.

 

8

Breathing over thousands of perilous materials in each puff of smoke can notably raise the risk of abortion in passive pregnant smokers.

 

 Chuyển các câu sau thành câu bị động

a. Parents should orient their children about future career.

b. Non-governmental organizations have given poor families a lot of support in terms of financial issues to develop sustainably.

c. The youth pay more attention to environmental issues than they used to do in the past.

d. Teachers can teach students to ultilize their potentials in some specific aspects.

e. Teenagers tend to spend their money on video games.

Cách 3: Thay đổi từ loại

Biến đổi linh hoạt giữa các từ loại cũng là một cách bạn có thể sử dụng để viết lại câu. Trong trường hợp câu chủ đề sử dụng danh từ, tính từ hoặc động từ là keyword, bạn nên chuyển đổi từ đó sang dạng từ khác mà vẫn giữ nguyên được nội dung của câu gốc.

VD: It is important to reduce the unemployment rate this year.

-> It is of importance to reduce the unemployment rate this year.

- Để việc chuyển đổi thể loại từ trở nên nhanh chóng và dễ dàng hơn, bạn nên nắm chắc về vị trí của từ, dấu hiệu nhận biết các dạng từ và cách chuyển các đuôi từ.

 

Động từ

Tính từ

Danh từ

 

 

 

Vị trí

-    Đứng sau chủ ngữ

-    Động từ thường sẽ đứng sau trạng từ chỉ tần suất

-    Động từ tobe sẽ đứng trước trạng từ chỉ tần suất

-    Đứng trước danh từ

-    Sau các động từ liên kết như seem, appear, feel, look...

-    Sử dụng dưới các dạng so sánh hơn, so sánh nhất, so sánh ngang hàng

-      Là chủ ngữ của câu, thường đứng đầu câu và đứng sau tính từ, tính từ sở hữu

-      Sau mạo từ a, an, the hoặc this, that, these, those, each, every, both...

-      Sau giới từ: in, at, under, on, about

Dấu hiệu nhận biết

 

Thường kết thúc bằng: -ful, -less, -ly, -al, ble, -ive, -ish, -y, -ed,-ing...

Danh từ kết thúc bằng : -tion/ation, – ment, er, -or, -ant, -ing, -age, -ship, -ism, -ity, -ness

 

 

 

Ví dụ

The government should impose stricter laws on human trafficking

meaningful, careless, historical, stable, childish, daily...

Daily exercises can boost the quality of life.

Nowadays, religion is still considered as a sensitive issue.

situation, information, entertainment, receptionist, socialism...

Entertainment plays a crucial role in helping people chill out.

Happiness comes from an inner mind.

Ex 4: Xác định dạng từ và chọn từ thích hợp:

a. People want to enjoy a diverse type of food - prepare them at home or eat at (expensive/expensively) restaurants. People want to try new cuisines both at home and at restaurants and they want to be served (prompt/promptly). This is where the (modern/moderned) equipment takes part in, and food (prepare/preparation) nowadays is easier and faster and this has (definite/definitely) enhanced our lifestyle as it allows us to enjoy food, not just (satisfy/satisfied) our tummy.

b. Now that we know the true (responsible/responsibility) of a teacher, we can (easy/easily) compare our parents and teachers. The things that we learn from our parents are far more (important/importance) than what we learn from our teachers. I am not denying the invaluable knowledge we learn from our teachers through our academic years, but what we learn from our parents are (incomparably/incomparable). We learn to survive, talk, and distinguish well from bad, values of life, morality and such important other things from our parents. We are the true (reflected/reflection) of our parents and our characters are shaped by their (personal/personality) and (behave/behaviours). Later the teachers help us to enhance our knowledge, horizon and our view of life but the very foundation and ground are made by our parents. The parents sacrifice so many things of their life just to ensure a better life for us and nothing in this whole world could even be compared with their (sacrifice/sacrificed) for us. Think of a student who is (able/unable) to pay his/her monthly school fees would be cast away from the school and the beloved teachers would (scarcely/scarce) be there to help him/her. On the other hand, the parents would always be there with their every (possibly/possible) effort to help the child.

c. The main advantage of owning a car is it gives the (free/freedom) to travel. If you have a car then you don't need to be (limit/limited) to fixed routes and timetables. Moreover, a car-owner can take is/her family members with him/her and other (necessary/necessarily) goods whenever he/she wish which might have been impossible otherwise. In addition, personal cars give (comfort/comfortable) while travelling on the (contract/contrary) to the public buses which are so (crowd/crowded) and disgusting. You can read books, listen to music or even can play with kids while you are in your own car but those all seems to be impossible in a (public/publicly) transport. On the contrary, owning a car is very (expensively/expensive). The price of the car, the cost of the tax, insurance cost, fuel cost, driver's salary, car repairing etc. all must be considered before buying a car and that is why it is out of reach of the middle-class people.

4. Cách 4: Dùng chủ ngữ giả

Sử dụng chủ ngữ giả cũng là một kĩ thuật không quá khó khăn trong việc viết lại câu. Bằng việc sử dụng chủ ngữ It, bạn sẽ tách 1 câu gốc ra làm 2 vế để nhấn mạnh hơn về chủ ngữ.

Chủ ngữ giả “It”

Cách viết lại câu trong tiếng Anh 7

(Adj* bao gồm các từ như: important, necessary, urgent, imperative...)

Ví dụ:

Cách viết lại câu trong tiếng Anh 8

Chủ ngữ giả “There”

There được sử dụng làm chủ ngữ giả với “There is” hoặc “There are”

Cách viết lại câu trong tiếng Anh 10

Ví dụ:

There are several actions that governments could take to solve the given problems.

There are many reasons why more and more people are learning English.

Phân biệt cách sử dụng chủ ngữ giả “It” và chủ ngữ giả “There”

Phân biệt cách sử dụng chủ ngữ giả “It” và chủ ngữ giả “There”

Chủ ngữ giả “It”

Chủ ngữ giả “There”

Bày tỏ ý kiến, bình luận

Thể hiện sự tồn tại của sự vật/sự việc/con người

Có thể theo sau bởi danh từ, tính từ...

Có thể theo sau bởi danh từ và cụm danh từ

Bài luyện tập:

Ex 5: Dựa vào các từ gợi ý, hãy hoàn thành các câu sau và sử dụng chủ ngữ giả
1. There / some / methods / governments / could / do / raise / awareness / global warming.

2. It/ challenging / manage / terrorism / happening / all / world.

3. It / very / important / fasten / seatbelt / when / drive / car.

4. There / be / adverse / effects / health / if / people / not / pay / attention / enviroment.

5. It / hard / balance / between / work / life.

6. There / undeniable / impacts / of / air pollution / daily.

7. It / necessary / learn / another / language / beside / mother tongue.

8. It / essential / developing countries / improve / health / education / trade.

5. Cách 5: Thay đổi trật tự từ

Đây là phương pháp an toàn giúp bạn giảm thiểu sai lầm có thể gặp phải trong việc lựa chọn từ và giúp bạn tiết kiệm thời gian suy nghĩ.

Ngoài ra, bạn nên kết hợp thêm từ đồng nghĩa nhằm tăng tính đa dạng cho câu viết.
Câu thể hiện mối quan hệ nguyên nhân – kết quả

Ví dụ:
- Due to the heavy workload, many full-time workers cannot balance their life

-> Many full-time workers cannot balance their life because of the heavy workload.

Câu thể hiện mối quan hệ tương phản đối lập

ảnh

Ví dụ:
- Many youngsters make friends online but others have a tendency to mix with their peers in the real world

-> Although many youngsters make friends online, others have a tendency to mix with their peers in the real world.

Tips

Bạn nên kết hợp thêm từ đồng nghĩa nhằm tăng tính đa dạng cho câu viết. Ngoài ra, khi thay đổi thứ tự, hãy chú ý đến việc chia động từ sao cho chính xác với chủ ngữ mới.

Xem chi tiết hơn:

 

Key bài tập

Ex 1:

a.

Word

Synonym

Word

Synonym

tackle

solve

primary

main

traffic congestion

traffic jam

reduce

lower

solution

way

furthermore

moreover

improve

enhance

bad

terrible

 

b.

Word/Phrase

Syllnonym

Word

Synonym

take care of

look after

trend

tendency

rise

improvement

predominate

prevail

focus on

concentrate on

outcome

result

 

Ex 2:

1. Universities should accept equal numbers of men and women in every subject.

-> Universities should allow the same number of male and female joining in each subject.

2. Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in seperate schools.

-> Some people believe that one of the education methods is to let boys and girls study in single-sex schools.

3. Even though globalization affects the world’s economies in a positive way, the negative side should not be forgotten.

-> In spite of the fact that globalization has good effects on the world’s economies, its drawbacks should be paid attention to.

4. The problem of deforestaion is impossible to avoid, especially when people focus too much on making profits.

-> The deforestation is undeniable, especially when people concentrate too much on earning money.

5. One of the main reasons for students to have higher education is to get high salary when graduated.

-> One of the main causes for pupils to have higher education is to get well-paid jobs when graduated.

 6. The increasing level of pollution relates directly to the development of economy.

->  The emerging pollution is directly associated to the economy growth.

 7. Many people believe that the government should provide free education to all citizens.

-> Many people assert that everyone should be equiped with non-paid education by the government.

 8. It is undeniable to say that the gender inequality is still happening in the underdeveloped countries.

->  It is unavoidable that the situation of gender inequality is still exisiting in the third world countries.

 9. The urgent thing is to solve the existing problem about malnutrition in Africa.

-> The crucial thing is to deal with malnutrition happening in Africa.

 10. The main factors for dealing with the issue include both government and citizens.

->  Both government and citizens play main roles in tackling the issue.

Ex 3: Gạch chân các cấu trúc bị động trong đoạn văn sau:

Đoạn 1:

The power of advertising is undeniable. The growth of the advertising industry has resulted in many people buying products of the same manufacture, which can be seen in the case of consumer goods. Today, the advertising campaigns of multinational companies such as Unilever have been remarked that their products almost dominate the market. Smaller enterprises tend not to be able to compete with these giant market leaders due to their disadvantages of capital poured into advertising programs. Besides, customers are often swayed to buy products of famous brands rather than those made by less well-known companies.

 

Đoạn 2:

The most worrying aspect of nuclear technology is its use for military purposes by many high and mighty countries. Enough atomic bombs have already been made which are capable of completely destroying the planet. An increasing number of countries now have nuclear weapons or have the technology required to make such bombs, and there is an ongoing debate about how to control the threat of nuclear weapons. After the fall of Russia, many Russian scientists have found their nuclear technology expertise is in high demand in countries that have an ambition with nuclear technology. Many believe that, at that time, technology has been secretly made available to many aspiring countries such as Iraq, North Korea, India, Pakistan and others

 

Đoạn 3:

School violence becomes very protrusive in many countries, most of which are caused by the attitudes of students. Some governments and the authorities show great concerns about the problems. From my point of view, these problems are aroused by three factors, the development of society, the influence of family and media and the weakness of school education.

Thanks to the rapid development, the young students are offered more opportunities to contact the outside world. Due to the lack of social experience, some youngsters are not capable of distinguishing right from wrong. Curiosity drives them into imitating what they see on TV or from the people around them.

 

Xác định các câu văn sau là câu bị động (P) hay câu chủ động (A)

STT

Câu văn

Dạng

1

School should strengthen students’ moral education, give them correct directions and cultivate their ability to tell right from wrong.

A

2

Teacher in different countries should be paid according to how much their students learn.

P

3

Women should be allowed to join the army, the navy and the air force just like men.

A

4

Without experiments on living animals, genetic technology would not have developed so quickly.

A

5

Any child can be taught to ultilize their potentials in some specific aspects.

P

6

Women are already serving in the various  other physically demanding job sectors  such as  white collar and blue collar worker

A

7

Smoking should be prohibited in public places due to its adverse impacts on health.

P

8

Breathing over thousands of perilous materials in each puff of smoke can notably raise the risk of abortion in passive pregnant smokers.

A

 

Chuyển các câu sang câu bị động

1. Parents should orient their children about future career.

-> Children should be oriented about future career by their parents.

2. Non-governmental organizations have given poor families a lot of support in terms of financial issues to develop sustainably.

->  Poor families have been given a lot of supports in terms of financial issues to develop sustainably by non-governmental organizations.

3. The youth pay more attention to environmental issues than they used to do in the past.

->  Environmental issues are paid more attention to by the youth than they used to do in the past.

4. Teachers can teach students to utilize their potentials in some specific aspects.

->  Students can be taught to utilize their potentials in some specific aspects.

5. Teenagers tend to spend their money on video games.

->  Money tend to be spent on video games by teenagers.

 

Ex 4: Xác định dạng từ và chọn từ thích hợp:

1. People want to enjoy a diverse type of food - prepare them at home or eat at (expensive/expensively) restaurants. People want to try new cuisines both at home and at restaurants and they want to be served (prompt/promptly). This is where the (modern/moderned) equipment takes part in, and food (prepare/preparation) nowadays is easier and faster and this has (definite/definitely) enhanced our lifestyle as it allows us to enjoy food, not just (satisfy/satisfied) our tummy.

 

2. Now that we know the true (responsible/responsibility) of a teacher, we can (easy/easily) compare our parents and teachers. The things that we learn from our parents are far more (important/importance) than what we learn from our teachers. I am not denying the invaluable knowledge we learn from our teachers through our academic years, but what we learn from our parents are (incomparably/incomparable). We learn to survive, talk, and distinguish well from bad, values of life, morality and such important other things from our parents. We are the true (reflected/reflection) of our parents and our characters are shaped by their (personal/personality) and (behave/behaviours). Later the teachers help us to enhance our knowledge, horizon and our view of life but the very foundation and ground are made by our parents. The parents sacrifice so many things of their life just to ensure a better life for us and nothing in this whole world could even be compared with their (sacrifice/sacrificed) for us. Think of a student who is (able/unable) to pay his/her monthly school fees would be cast away from the school and the beloved teachers would (scarcely/scarce) be there to help him/her. On the other hand, the parents would always be there with their every (possibly/possible) effort to help the child.

3. The main advantage of owning a car is it gives the (free/freedom) to travel. If you have a car then you don't need to be (limit/limited) to fixed routes and timetables. Moreover, a car-owner can take is/her family members with him/her and other (necessary/necessarily) goods whenever he/she wish which might have been impossible otherwise. In addition, personal cars give (comfort/comfortable) while travelling on the (contract/contrary) to the public buses which are so (crowd/crowded) and disgusting. You can read books, listen to music or even can play with kids while you are in your own car but those all seems to be impossible in a (public/publicly) transport. On the contrary, owning a car is very (expensively/expensive). The price of the car, the cost of the tax, insurance cost, fuel cost, driver's salary, car repairing etc. all must be considered before buying a car and that is why it is out of reach of the middle-class people.

Ex 5: Dựa vào các từ gợi ý, hãy hoàn thành các câu sau và sử dụng chủ ngữ giả

1. There are some methods that governments could do to raise the awareness about global warming.

2. It is challenging to manage the terrorism happening all over the world.

3. It is very important to fasten the seatbelt when driving a car.

4. There will be adverse effects on health if people do not pay attention to environment.

5. It is hard to balance between work and life.

6. There are undeniable impacts of air pollution on health.

7. It is necessary to learn another language beside mother tongue

8. It is essential for developing countries to improve on health, education and trade.

Trên đây là bài học về cách viết lại câu trong tiếng Anh,các bạn lưu về học nhé!

 


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