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Câu đảo ngữ trong tiếng Anh - Bài tập có đáp án chi tiết

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Chắc hẳn trong quá trình tự học tiếng Anh, mọi người luôn được dạy rằng cấu trúc một câu văn bình thường sẽ lần lượt bao gồm Chủ ngữ + (Trợ động từ) + Động từ + Tân ngữ.

Chính vì thế, khi gặp những câu văn có cấu trúc “kỳ lạ” với một trong số những thành phần trên được đưa lên trên đầu câu, làm cho một câu trần thuật bình thường nghe giống như một câu hỏi.

Đó có thể coi là một “bước đầu” giúp các bạn nhận diện Câu đảo ngữ trong tiếng Anh rồi đó. Bài viết dưới đây sẽ cung cấp cho các bạn khái niệm và các công thức của câu đảo ngữ, đồng thời đưa ra một số bài tập để mọi người có thể tự mình luyện tập tại nhà nhé.

I. CÂU ĐẢO NGỮ LÀ GÌ?

Câu đảo ngữ được hiểu đơn giản là câu có một thành phần nào đó được đặt lên vị trí đầu câu, làm cho cấu trúc thông thường bị đảo lộn. Thành phần được đảo lên đầu câu có thể là trạng từ, phó từ, trợ động từ. Sau khi làm thao tác đảo ngữ, các thành phần khác của câu cũng sẽ có sự thay đổi.

Chúng ta sử dụng cấu trúc đảo ngữ khi muốn nhấn mạnh vào một sự việc hay một chủ thể nào đó trong câu. Cấu trúc đảo ngữ vừa có thể xuất hiện ở văn nói thường ngày hoặc văn viết trang trọng.

II. CÁC LOẠI CÂU ĐẢO NGỮ THƯỜNG GẶP

1. Câu đảo ngữ trạng từ chỉ tần suất (thường là các trạng từ mang nghĩa phủ định)

 Never/Rarely/Seldom/Hardly/Little + Trợ động từ + Chủ ngữ + Động từ

Ví dụ:

- I never drink milk tea for fear that I will get fat

=> Never do I drink milk tea for fear that I will get fat.

- I knew little about chemistry

=> Little did I know about chemistry.

- She rarely spends time on playing video games

=> Rarely does she spend time on playing video games.

2. Câu đảo ngữ với No hoặc Not any

No + Danh từ + Trợ động từ + Chủ ngữ + Động từ

Not any + Danh từ + Trợ động từ Chủ ngữ + Động từ

 

Ví dụ:

I will not lend you any more money since you haven’t pay me back last time

=> No more money will I lend you since you haven’t pay me back last time.

hoặc Not any money will I lend you since you haven’t pay me back last time.

3.  Câu đảo ngữ với Only

Only once/ Only later/ Only then/ Only in this way + Trợ động từ + Chủ ngữ + Vị ngữ

Only after/ Only when/ Only by/ Only with + Danh từ + Trợ động từ + Chủ ngữ + Vị ngữ

Only in + Danh từ + Trợ động từ + Chủ ngữ + Vị ngữ

Only if + Mệnh đề, Trợ động từ + Chủ ngữ + Vị ngữ

 

Ví dụ:

- Only once did I meet her.

- Only in this way can the project be done quickly.

- Only when the show ended could she go to the bathroom.

- Only with courage could we finish our challenge.

- Only in Vietnam did they see such beautiful landscapes.

- Only if she was not sick, could she attend the concert with her friends.

4. Câu đảo ngữ với So và Such

So + Tính từ/ Trạng từ + Trợ động từ + Danh từ + that + Mệnh đề

Such + Mạo từ + Tính từ + Danh từ + that + Mệnh đề

 

Ví dụ:

- The watch was so costly that I could not afford it

=> So costly was the watch that I could not afford it.

-  It was such a beautiful day that we could not just stay inside the house

=> Such a beautiful day it was that we could not just stay inside the house.

câu đảo ngữ với so

5. Câu đảo ngữ với Not until

Not until + Trợ động từ + Chủ ngữ + Vị ngữ + that + Mệnh đề

Ví dụ:

It was not until my teacher graded my paper poorly that I realized that there was a mistake

=> Not until did my teacher grade my paper poorly that I realized that there was a mistake.

6. Câu đảo ngữ với trạng từ

Trạng từ + Trợ động từ + Chủ ngữ + Vị ngữ

Ví dụ:

- She cooked the meal perfectly

=> Perfectly did she cook the meal.

- The room was decorated tastefully

=> Tastefully was the room decorated.

7. Câu đảo ngữ Not only – but also

Not only + Trợ động từ + Chủ ngữ + Vị ngữ, but + Chủ ngữ + also + Vị ngữ

Ví dụ:

- Not only does he speak English very well, but he also can speak Chinese fluently.

- Not only was the food amazing, but the service was also very satisfying.

8. Câu đảo ngữ trong câu điều kiện loại 1,2,3

 

Với câu điều kiện loại 1

Should + Mệnh đề, Chủ ngữ + will/should/may + Động từ

Ví dụ:

- If it rains tomorrow, we will cancel the camping trip

=> Should it rain tomorrow, we will cancel the trip.

- If they don’t approve the proposal, we will have to find another solution

=> Should they not approve the proposal, we will have to find another solution.

Với câu điều kiện loại 2

 

Were + Chủ ngữ + to + Động từ, Chủ ngữ + would/could/might + Động từ

Were + Chủ ngữ, Chủ ngữ + would/could/might + Động từ

Ví dụ:

- If I had money, I would buy that mansion

=> Were I to have money, I would buy that mansion.

- If I were her, I would focus more on studying

=> Were I her, I would focus more on studying.

Với câu điều kiện loại 3

Had + Chủ ngữ + Động từ P3, Chủ ngữ + would/should/might have + Động từ P3

Ví dụ:

- If she had not eaten that dish, she would not have been sick

=> Had she not eaten that dish, she would not have been sick.

- If he had scored the goal, his team would have won the match

=> Had he scored the goal, his team would have won the match.

câu đảo ngữ với câu điều kiện

Một số cấu trúc khác

- No sooner… than

- Scarely… when

- Hardly… when ... + had + Chủ ngữ + Động từ P3 + … + Chủ ngữ + Động từ QK

Ví dụ: No sooner had he come than she left.

=> Hardly had he come when she left.

9. Các cấu trúc câu đảo ngữ khác

- At no time

- On no condition

- On no account

- Under no circumstances

- For no reason

- No longer

- In no ways + Trợ động từ + Chủ ngữ + Động từ

Ví dụ:

- Under no circumstances can you skip classes.

- No longer did I live there.

- In no ways can the project be finished tomorrow.

Xem thêm bài học về các loại câu khác:

III. BÀI TẬP CÂU ĐẢO NGỮ

Exercise 1: Viết lại các câu sau với cấu trúc đảo ngữ bắt đầu bằng Only

1.He only thought about having a holiday abroad after he retired.

=> Only __________________________________________________________.

2. I only realized how dangerous the situation had been when I got home.

=> Only __________________________________________________________.

3. It wasn’t until last week that the Agriculture Minister admitted defeat.

=> Only __________________________________________________________.

4. I understood Hamlet only after seeing it on the stage.

=> Only __________________________________________________________.

5. They didn’t get round to business until they had finished eating.

=> Only __________________________________________________________.

6. They had to wait for twelve hours before their flight left.

=> Only __________________________________________________________.

7. I didn’t realize who he was until later.

=> Only __________________________________________________________.

8. The door could not be opened without using force.

=> Only __________________________________________________________.

9. I won’t agree until Tom’s apologized.

=> Only __________________________________________________________.

10.The only way you can become a good athlete is by training hard every day.

=> Only __________________________________________________________.

Exercise 2: Viết lại các câu sau với cấu trúc đảo ngữ của câu điều kiện

1. If the salary were high, the job would be worth doing.

=> Were ___________________________________________________________.

2. Would you visit me if I were sent to prison?

=> Were ___________________________________________________________.

3. I didn’t see the signal, so I didn’t stop.

=> Had___________________________________________________________.

4. If I were rich, I could afford to buy an expensive car.

=> Were ___________________________________________________________.

5. If I were you, I would tell him the truth.

=> Were ___________________________________________________________.

6. If he weren’t busy right now, he could help them.

=> Were ___________________________________________________________.

7. If she had said sorry, he wouldn’t have been angry.

=> Had___________________________________________________________.

8. If the computer hadn’t broken down and I wouldn’t have had to stop my work.

=> Had___________________________________________________________.

9. If he hadn’t been angry, I would have said something.

=> Had___________________________________________________________.

10. If his friends hadn’t been late, they wouldn’t have missed the train.

=> Had___________________________________________________________.

Exercise 3: Viết lại các câu sau với cấu trúc đảo ngữ So/Such

1. The weather is so beautiful that we decided to go to the beach.

=> So__________________________________________________________________.

2. He is so strong that he can lift the box.

=> So__________________________________________________________________.

3. He is such a lazy boy that no one likes him.

=> Such________________________________________________________________.

4. He ate so much food that he became ill.

=> So__________________________________________________________________.

5. It is such hot coffee that I can't drink it.

=> Such________________________________________________________________.

6. He bought so many books that he didn't know where to put them.

=> So__________________________________________________________________.

7. She has such a soft voice that everyone likes her.

=> Such________________________________________________________________.

8. This book is so boring that I couldn’t finish it.

=> So__________________________________________________________________.

9. He was such a fast speaker that we couldn’t understand him.

=> Such________________________________________________________________.

10. She was so tired that she fell asleep in the armchair.

=> So__________________________________________________________________.

Exercise 4: Viết lại các câu sau với cấu trúc đảo ngữ của các câu điều kiện

1. If you need some more money, take an extra 200.

2. If I were your father, I would insist you practice harder.

3. If my girlfriend calls, please let me know right away.

4. If I had thought of the right words, I would have told them what I was thinking!

5. If I were a rich kid, I would not have to worry about anything.

6. If they run out of tickets, we will have to go to another theater.

7. If you change your mind, let us know.

8. If you had known my mom, you would have thought she was crazy too

9. If you had heard her singing, you would have laughed too.

10. If I were a celebrity, I could buy any bag I want.

IV. ĐÁP ÁN

EX 1:

1. Only after he retired did he think about having a holiday abroad

2. Only when I got home did I realize how dangerous the situation had been.

3. Only until last week did the Agriculture Minister admit defeat

4. Only after seeing Hamlet on the stage did I understand it.

5. Only until they had finished eating did they get around to business.

6. Only after they had waited for 12 hours did their flight leave.

7. Only later did I realize who he was.

8. Only using force could the door be opened.

9. Only until Tom's apologized will I agree.

10. Only by training hard every day can you become a good athlete.

EX 2:

1. Were the salary high, the job would be worth doing.

2. Were I sent to prison would you visit me?

3. Had I seen the signal I would have stopped.

4. Were I rich and I could afford to buy an expensive car.

5.Were I you, I would tell him the truth.

6. Were he not busy right now, he could help them.

7. Had she said sorry, he wouldn’t have been angry.

8. Had the computer not broken down and I wouldn’t have had to stop my work.

9. Had I he not been angry, I would have said something.

10. Had his friends not been late, they wouldn’t have missed the train.

EX 3:

1. So beautiful is the weather that we decided to go to the beach.

2.So strong is he that he can lift the box.

3. Such a lazy boy is he that no one likes him.

4. So much food did he eat that he became ill.

5. Such hot coffee is it that I can't drink it.

6. So many books did he buy that he didn't know where to put them.

7. Such a soft voice does she have that everyone likes her.

8. So boring is this book that I couldn’t finish it.

9. Such a fast speaker was he that we couldn’t understand him.

10. So tired was she that she fell asleep in the armchair.

EX 4:

1. Should you need some more money, take an extra 200.

2. Were I your father, I would insist you practice harder.

3. Should my girlfriend call, please let me know right away.

4. Had I thought of the right words, I would have told them what I was thinking!

5. Were I a rich kid, I would not have to worry about spending anything.

6. Should they run out of tickets, we will have to go to another theater.

7. Should you change your mind, let us know.

8. Had you known my mom, you would have thought he was crazy too.

9. Had you heard her singing, you would have laughed too.

10. Were I a celebrity, I could get buy any bag I want.

Các bạn còn thắc mắc gì thì hãy cmt ngay bên dưới để IELTS Fighter giải đáp nhé!


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