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DANH TỪ TRONG TIẾNG ANH và BÀI TẬP CÓ ĐÁP ÁN

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Nắm vững các loại từ trong tiếng Anh là phần quan trọng để đặt nền tảng cho các bạn phát triển vốn ngữ pháp của mình về sau. Bài học hôm nay sẽ giúp bạn củng cố kiến thức về danh từ cũng như cách sử dụng các loại danh từ trong bài thi IELTS như thế nào nhằm học tập đúng hướng và hiệu quả hơn, ôn thi IELTS tốt hơn.

Bài học ngữ pháp cần chú ý khác:

 

I. NOUN LÀ GÌ? VỊ TRÍ VÀ LOẠI DANH TỪ

1. Noun - Danh từ là gì?

Noun - Danh từ trong tiếng Anh tương tự với tiếng Việt dùng để chỉ sự vật, sự việc, con người. Danh từ được sử dụng trong câu với những vị trí khác nhau. Danh từ chia thành 5 loại trong đó có danh từ chung, danh từ riêng, danh từ trừu tượng, tập hợp và danh từ ghép.

Danh từ trong tiếng Anh phân biệt danh từ đếm được và không đếm được. Cụ thể như sau:

Countable nouns (Danh từ đếm được)

- Tồn tại ở cả 2 dạng: số ít và số nhiều (a house, some houses). Tuy nhiên, có những danh từ chỉ có dạng số nhiều (socks, trousers).

- Các danh từ này có thể được chia động từ số ít hoặc số nhiều.

E.g: The house is big.

The houses in the neighborhood are very big.

- Các danh từ này có thể được thay thế bằng đại từ số ít hoặc số nhiều.

E.g: The notebook is Jack’s. It is so beautiful!

These notebooks are Jack’s. They are so colorful!

- Dạng số ít của danh từ có thể đứng sau các mạo từ a, an, the. (a bike, an apple, the tree)

Uncountable nouns (Danh từ không đếm được)

- Có một số danh từ không đếm được có dạng số nhiều (maths, physics, news).

- Chỉ được chia động từ số ít.

E.g: The news brings sadness to me and my friends.

- Chỉ có thể được thay thế bằng đại từ số ít.

E.g: My most favorite subject is Physics. It is so interesting.

- Chỉ có thể đo đếm qua các đơn vị đo lường cụ thể và đếm được (a bottle of water, a piece of paper, a bar of soap)

- Không thể đứng sau các mạo từ a, an. (hair, không phải a hair)

2. Vị trí trong câu

- Danh từ là chủ ngữ đứng trước động từ chính.

Ví dụ: Approximately 2000 people went to the concert.

- Danh từ là tân ngữ (direct object) đứng sau động từ chính.

Ví dụ: Doing exercise brings many benefits to our health.

- Danh từ là tân ngữ của giới từ (object of preposition) đứng trong cụm giới từ.

Ví dụ: Global warming has affected the lives of many people on Earth.

3. Phân loại danh từ

Trong tiếng Anh, danh từ được phân thành 5 loại cơ bản như sau:

Loại danh từ

Giải thích

Ví dụ

Proper nouns

(Danh từ riêng)

Chỉ tên riêng của người, địa điểm, vật.

Paris, Gordon Ramsay, Eiffel Tower,…

Common nouns

(Danh từ chung)

Chỉ tên của một vật chung chung.

Computer, food, vehicle,…

Abstract nouns

(Danh từ trừu tượng)

Chỉ những thứ trừu tượng không nhìn thấy được bằng mắt thường nhưng có thể cảm nhận được.

Knowledge, love, sympathy

Collective nouns

(Danh từ tập hợp)

Chỉ tên một tập hợp các cá thể khác nhau.

Class, group, gang.

Compound nouns

(Danh từ ghép)

Là các danh từ được ghép lại với nhau để tạo thành 1 danh từ khác.

Motorcycle, bedroom.

 

II. CÁCH HÌNH THÀNH DANH TỪ

1. Tạo danh từ từ các hậu tố

STT

Hậu tố

Danh từ

1

ant

Assist -> Assistant  

2

– ance/ ence

Maintain -> Maintenance

Prefer -> Preference

3

– ion

Industrialize -> Industrialization

4

– ure

Fail -> Failure

5

– ment

Disagree -> Disagreement

6

ism

Captial -> Capitalism

7

ship

Friend -> Friendship

8

– ness

Happy -> Happiness

9

– ity/- ty/-y

Identify -> Identity

10

– th

Wide -> Width

11

– ery

Bake -> Bakery


2. Tạo danh từ từ danh từ

 (A/an/the) + Noun1 + Noun2

  • Noun1: Đóng vai trò như tính từ bổ nghĩa cho Noun2

Noun2: Danh từ chính

Ví dụ:  The city center (Trung tâm thành phố)

           A taxi driver (Người lái xe taxi)

3. Tạo danh từ từ V-ing

Những danh từ có V-ing đứng trước thường để biểu thị mục đích sử dụng của danh từ đó.

Ví dụ:  A frying pan (= a pan used for frying)

        A washing machine (= a machine used for washing clothes)

4. Tạo danh từ từ số đếm (Dạng: Number + Noun + Noun)

Ví dụ: A ten-hour flight (Chuyến bay kéo dài 10 tiếng)

      A seven-storey building (Tòa nhà cao 7 tầng)

     A four hundred-page dictionary (Quyển từ điển dày 400 trang)

    A ten-year old boy (Cậu bé 10 tuổi)

 Lưu ý:

Danh từ đứng liền sau số đếm và dấu gạch ngang Ở DẠNG SỐ ÍT. (A ten-year old boy)

youtube IELTS Fighter

III. LUYỆN TẬP

Exercise 1: Cho dạng đúng của các từ trong ngoặc ở những câu dưới đây.

1. Detroit is renowned for the _____________ of car. (produce)

2. If you make a good ________________ at the interview, you will get the job. (impress)

3. The _________________ looked dark and there were hardly any other guests. (enter)

4. My history teacher has a vast ________________ of past events. (know)

5. You are never too old to go to college and gain some _______________. ( qualify)

6. My greatest ________________ was graduating from university. (achieve)

7. The weatherman said there is a strong _______________ of rain today. (possible)

8. Despite her severe _________________, she fulfilled her goals in life. (disable)

9. I am really into eating dairy______________. (produce)

10. Due to the pilot's _____________, the copilot managed to land safely. (guide)

Exercise 2: Chọn dạng thích hợp của danh từ trong những chố trống sau để tạo thành một bài IELTS Writing task 2 hoàn chỉnh.

Some people believe that developments in the field of artificial intelligence will have a positive impact on our lives in the near future. Others, by contrast, are worried that we are not prepared for a world in which computers are more intelligent than humans. Discuss both of these views and give your own opinion.

People seem to be either excited or worried about the future impact of artificial (1-intelligent)………... Personally I can understand the two (2-oppose)……….points of view; I am both fascinated by developments in artificial intelligence and apprehensive about its possible negative effects.

On the one hand, the increasing intelligence of technology should bring some obvious benefits. Machines are clearly able to do many jobs better than humans can, especially in areas that require high levels of (3-accurate)…………or calculations using large amounts of data. For example, robots are being developed that can carry out surgical procedures with greater (4-precise)………..than a human doctor, and we already have cars that use sensors and cameras to drive themselves. Such technologies can improve safety by reducing the (5-likely)…………..of human errors. It is easy to imagine how these developments, and many others, will steadily improve our quality of life.

On the other hand, I share the concerns of people who believe that artificial intelligence may harm us if we are not careful. In the short term, it is likely that we will see a rise in (6-employ)…………..as workers in various industries are replaced by machines or software programs. For example, self-driving vehicles are expected to cause (7-redundant)…………….in driving jobs, such as lorry drivers, taxi drivers and bus drivers. In the medium term, if intelligent technologies gradually take jobs away from humans, we may find that people become deskilled and lose their sense of purpose in life. A longer term fear is that computers become so intelligent that they begin to make (8-decide)…………without human oversight and without regard for our well-being.

In conclusion, while intelligent machines will no doubt improve our lives in many ways, the potential risks of such technologies should not be ignored.

Exercise 3: Đoạn văn sau bao gồm 3 lỗi sai. Tìm và sửa chúng.

In many city all over the world, spectacular fireworks displays take place as soon as the clock passes midnight on 31 December. In recent years, Sydney in Australia has been the host to one of the first of these celebrate as New Year arrives there before most other major international cities. The display takes place in Sydney Harbor, with the Opera House and Harbor Bridge making it a stunning set. Fireworks light up the skies in hundreds of cities as 12 midnight strikes around the globe.

1………………. 2………………. 3………………….

Exercise 4: Dựa vào những từ cho sẵn, hãy viết thành câu hoàn chỉnh.

1. The bar chart/ illustrate/ gross domestic product generated from the IT and Service Industry/the UK from 1992 to 2000.
………………………………………………………………………………………..

2. It is measured in percentages. Overall, it can be seen/ both increase/ as a percentage/ GDP, but/ IT/ remain/ at/ higher rate throughout/ time.
………………………………………………………………………………………..

3. At/ beginning/ the/ period, in 1992, the Service Industry account/ for/ 4 per cent/ GDP, whereas IT exceed/ this, at just over 6 per cent.
………………………………………………………………………………………..

4. Over/ next four/ year/, the levels become/ more/ similar, with/ both/ components/ standing/ between 6 / just/ over/ 8 per cent.
………………………………………………………………………………………..

5. IT/ still/ higher/ overall, though it/ drop/ slightly/ 1994/ 1996.
………………………………………………………………………………………..

Exercise 5: Mỗi câu sau chứa một lỗi sai. Tìm và sửa chúng.

1. There are many dirts on the floor.
…………………………………………
2. We want more fuels than that.
…………………………………………
3. He drank two milks.
…………………………………………
4. Ten inks are needed for our class.
…………………………………………
5. He sent me many foods.
…………………………………………
6. Many golds are found there.
…………………………………………
7. He gave me a great deal of troubles.
…………………………………………
8. Cows eat grasses.
…………………………………………
9. The rain has left many waters.
…………………………………………
10. I didn't have many luggages.
…………………………………………

Exercise 6: Chọn đáp án đúng cho mỗi câu sau.

1. If you want to hear the news, you can read (paper/ a paper).

2. I want to write some letters but I haven't got (a paper/ any paper) to write on.

3. I thought there was somebody in the house because there was (light/a light) on inside.

4. (Light/a light) comes from the sun.

5. I was in a hurry this morning. I didn't have (time/ a time) for breakfast.

6. "Did you enjoy your holiday?" - "Yes, we had (wonderful time/ a wonderful time)."

7. Sue was very helpful. She gives us some very useful (advice/advices).

8. We had (very bad weather/a very bad weather) while we were on holiday.

9. We were very unfortunate. We had (bad luck/a bad luck).

10. It's very difficult to find a (work/job) at the moment.

11. I had to buy (a/some) bread because I wanted to make some sandwiches.

12. Bad news (don't/doesn't) make people happy.

13. (Your hair is/ your hairs) are too long. You should have (it/them) cut.

14. Nobody was hurt in the accident but (the damage / the damages) to the car (was/were) quite bad.

15. She gives me (a piece of advice/ an advice) about this.

Exercise 7: Điền mạo từ thích hợp vào những chỗ trống sau.

(1)……………..bar chart shows the number of British people who emigrated to five destinations over (2)…………….period 2004 to 2007. It is evident from the chart that throughout the period, the most popular place to move to was Australia.

Emigration to Australia stood at just over 40,000 people in 2004, which was approximately 6,000 higher than for Spain, and twice as high as the other three countries. Apart from a jump to around 52,000 in 2006, it remained around this level throughout the period.

(3)…………….next most popular country for Britons to move to was (4)………….Spain, though its popularity declined over the time frame to finish at below 30,000 in 2007. Despite this, the figure was still higher than for the remaining three countries. Approximately 20,000 people emigrated to New Zealand each year, while the USA fluctuated between 20-25,000 people over the period.

Although (5)………….number of visitors to France spiked to nearly 35,000 in 2005, it was the country that was the least popular to emigrate to at the end of the period, at just under 20,000 people.

Exercise 8: Điền mạo từ thích hợp vào chỗ trống để tạo thành một bài Writing task 2 hoàn chỉnh.

There are several reasons that are causing the environmental harms and this has become (1)………….urgent issue to discuss and bring (2)……………..solution about. The number of ever increasing cars is one of (3)…………….reasons that leads to affect the environment negatively and there are some assumptions that increasing the fuel price would solve this problem. But the reality would be different, and increased fuel price will cause lots of other problems while it would contribute very little to reduce the environmental pollutions and hazards. So this can’t be the best solution in any way.

First of all, the maximum numbers of cars are owned by the rich people and fuel price would not restrain them from using the cars. The price of (4)…………..fuel, in fact, increased significantly over the past 12 years and that has done nothing to reduce the car usages. On the contrary, the number of cars running on the roads has increased more than expected. Besides, (5)…………fuel price determines the market prices of other daily necessary products and increasing the price would only bring misery to the low and medium earning class population. Electronic wastages, industries, household electrical devices, deforestation, chemical wastages, unthoughtful activities of people are causing more damage to the mother earth than the gas omission by the cars. We should focus on those aspects as well before increasing the price of fuel just based on (6)……………assumption.

The main idea of increasing the fuel price is to reduce (7)…………….number of cars running in the street and to restrain the car owners from using the cars less. But that would prove to be (8)………..ridiculous solution especially when car owners are mostly high earning class and they would not bother about the fuel price.

The best solution to address this utmost concerning issue is to introduce (9)…………environment friendly energy source like solar energy system, to improve the public transportation system & train system so that people mostly use these systems instead of always using their own cars, increasing the awareness of the people so that they do not directly contribute to harm the environment, and making strict rules so that deforestation, chemical wastages and other harmful ways of (10)……….environmental pollutions get reduced.

Exercise 9: Cho dạng đúng của các từ trong ngoặc.

1. After Monday, I will no longer be a foreigner - I am receiving my ________________! (citizen)

2. My father's death left me with a great_________________  in my heart. (empty)

3. Americans fought hard to earn their _________________from Britain. (free)

4. The weather ________________looks bad for a picnic--rainy and windy! (cast)

5. The new job is a ___________ for her. (promote)

6. The national ____________ in the face of danger is necessary. (solid)

7. He came first in the poetry __________. (compete)

8. After considerable ______________ they decided to accept our offer.
(discuss)

9. Fill in your name, address and __________ on the form. (nation)

10. Can I see your ____________card, please ? (identify)

Exercise 10: Tìm và sửa 5 lỗi sai trong bài viết sau để tạo thành một bài viết IELTS Writing task 1 hoàn chỉnh.

The line graph shows the percent of tourists to England who visited certain Brighton attracts between 1980 and 2010. We can see that in 1980 and in 2010 the favorite attractions were the pavilion and the festival. In 1980 the least popular attraction was the pier but in 2010 this changed and the art gallery was the least popular.

During the 1980s and 1990s there was a sharpen increase in visitors to the pavilion from 28% to 48% and then the percentage gradually went down to 31% in 2010. The trend for the art gallery was similar to the pavilion. Visitors increased rapidly from 22% to 37% from 1980 to 1985 then gradually decreased to less than 10% over the next twenty-five years. The amount of tourists who visited the Brighton Festival fluctuated slightly but in general remained steady at about 25%. Visitor to the pier also fluctuated from 1980 to 2000 then rose significantly from 12% to 22% between 2000 and 2010.

Exercise 11: Dịch các câu sau đây sang tiếng Anh có sử dụng dạng Noun + Noun.

1. Tôi mới mua một quyển từ điển dày 500 trang.

=>________________________________________________________________

2. Chuyến bay 3 tiếng từ Việt Nam sang Singapore làm cho cô ấy mệt mỏi.

=>________________________________________________________________

 

3. Có một tòa nhà 9 tầng ở cuối phố.

=>______________________________________________________________

4. Khách sạn 5 sao là những khách sạn rất sang trọng.

=>______________________________________________________________

5. Sarah có một cậu con trai 3 tuổi.

=>______________________________________________________________

Exercise 12: Cho dạng đúng của các từ trong ngoặc để tạo thành một bài IELTS Speaking part 2 hoàn chỉnh.

Let me tell you about a language I’ve always wanted to learn, which is (1-Russia)___________. It’s spoken in Russia, obviously, but also in many other countries which have been influenced by Russia including places like Mongolia and Kazakhstan. It’s quite a difficult language to learn because the (2-alphabetical)_____________is not the Roman one, which means that you have to learn to read and write from scratch, a but like studying Chinese or Japanese. Well, the reason I would like to learn Russian is that the energy (3-industrial)___________is huge and there are lots of jobs. A lot of my country’s oil and gas comes from Russia so it’s really useful to be able to speak that language if you want to work in the energy field. I have actually been to Russia before so I know from experience that a lot of Russians can’t speak English very well, so that’s another good (4-reasonable)__________to learn their language. The only (5-problematic)____________ is I’m already thirty years old and I’ve spent more than fifteen years learning English. I don’t know if I would ever be able to learn Russian successfully because it’s a difficult language for anyone to learn, especially someone older like me. But it would be really great to try.

ĐÁP ÁN

1. Exercise 1

1. production
2. impression
3. entrance
4. knowledge
5. qualifications
6. achievement
7. possibility
8. disability
9. products
10. guidance

Exercise 2

1. intelligence
2. opposing
3. accuracy
4. precision
5. likelihood
6. unemployment
7. redundancies
8. decisions

Exercise 3

1. city => cities
2. celebrate => celebrations
3. set => setting

Exercise 4

1. The bar chart illustrates the gross domestic product generated from the IT and Service Industry in the UK from 1992 to 2000.

2. It is measured in percentages. Overall, it can be seen that both increased as a percentage of GDP, but IT remained at a higher rate throughout this time.

3. At the beginning of the period, in 1992, the Service Industry accounted for 4 per cent of GDP, whereas IT exceeded this, at just over 6 per cent.

4. Over the next four years, the levels became more similar, with both components standing between 6 and just over 8 per cent.

5. IT was still higher overall, though it dropped slightly from 1994 to 1996.

Exercise 5

1. There are many dirts on the floor. => There is a lot of dirt on the floor.

2. We want more fuels than that. => We want more fuel than that.

3. He drank two milks. => He drank two bottles of milk.

4. Ten inks are needed for our class. => Ten bottles of ink are…

5. He sent me many foods. => He sent me a lot of food.

6. Many golds are found there. => A lot of gold is found there.

7. He gave me a great deal of troubles. => He gave me a number of troubles.

8. Cows eat grasses. => Cows eat grass.

9. The rain has left many waters. => The rain has left a lot of water.

10. I didn't have many luggages. => I didn’t have much luggage.

Exercise 6

1. a paper
2. any paper
3. light
4. Light
5. time
6. a wonderful time
7. advice
8. very bad weather
9. bad luck
10. job
11. some
12. doesn't
13. Your hair; it
14. the damage; was
15. a piece of advice

Exercise 7

1. the
2. the
3. the
4. x
5. the

Exercise 8

1. an 2. a 3. the 4. x 5.the
6. an 7. the 8. a 9. an 10. x

Exercise 9

1. citizenship
2. emptiness
3. freedom
4. forecast
5. promotion
6. solidarity
7. competition
8. discussion
9. nationality
10. identity

Exercise 10

1. percent => percentage
2. attracts => attractions
3. sharpen => sharp
4. amount => number
5. Visitor => Visitors

Exercise 11

1. I have just bought a 500-page dictionary.
2. The three-hour flight from Vietnam to Singapore made her tired/ exhausted.
3. There is a nine-storey building at the corner of the street.
4. Five-star hotels are very luxurious.
5. Sarah has a three-year-old son.

Exercise 12

1-Russian
2-alphabet
3-industry
4-reason
5-problem

 

Trên đây là bài học và bài tập về danh từ, cách sử dụng các loại danh từ trong tiếng Anh và áp dụng bài thi IELTS của mình. Các bạn hãy ghi nhớ để đạt được nền tảng vững chắc cho kiến thức của mình nhé!


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